A nobleman imprisoned on the Capitol in 1385 left two gold florins for a painting of the Blessed Virgin to be made nearby as consolation for the prisoners. Many came there to honour Our Lady, and in 1506 a hospital was founded at the site. Among those who worked there are SS Ignatius of Loyola, Camillus de Lellis, Philip Neri and Aloysius Gonzaga. It was here that St Aloysius contracted the plague while caring for its victims. A plaque commemorating his sacrifice can be found on the wall past the side of the church.
The hospital was demolished in 1936, and now the headquarters of the Fire Brigade is located at the site, but the church remains in use.
The frescoes of the Passion were painted by Taddeo Zuccari in 1556.