The church was built to house an image of the Madonna, which was originally placed on the landing of a staircase in a nearby private house. A deformed child whose mother often prayed before the image was cured.
The church is served by the Discalced Carmelites.
The last titular deacon of the church was H.E. Francois-Xavier cardinal Nguyen Van Thuan, who was appointed on February 21, 2001, and died on 16 September 2002.
Adjacent to the church is a monastery famous for its 17th century farmacy, where the furnishings and equipment has been preserved. It used to supply the papal court.
The miraculous image is enshrined opposite the altar of St Teresa, in the left transept.